2O6 AMBLYPODA AND ITS ALLIES an the carpus are alternating in position. The toes are five i both feet, and are very short. There is a hint of commenein. *' perissodactylism" in the fore - feet at any rate. The brain i small and the hemispheres smooth. The Amblypoda, or Amblydactyla, are so called on account o their short and stumpy feet and toes. They were held by Pro fessor Cope to be on the direct line of ancestry of both Perisso dactyles and Artiodactyles, a view which is on the whole no accepted at present. As is the case with other groups, the Amblypoda eommencec existence as a sub-order with relatively small forms such aŁ FIG. 114.—Skull of Protolambda bathinodon. x f. e.a.m, External auditory meatus ; m, mastoid ; m.f, mastoid foramen. (After Osborn.) PantolaTribda,, the most ancient type known, which is in many respects a transition between the later forms and other groups of mammals such as the Creodonta.1 The race culminated and ended in the giant Dinoceras and Coryphodon, and spread into the Old "World. In spite of their smooth and diminutive brain, these mammals were able to hold their own and to multiply into many species and genera; in this they were perhaps aided by their formidable tusks and by the horns which many of them possessed. The teeth seem to imply an omnivorous diet, which was quite possibly an additional advantage in the struggle for existence, Ifc does not seem to be necessary to divide off the Dinoceratidae into a sub-order equivalent to the Coryphodontidae as was done 1 Or perhaps rather to the primitive Ungulates Condylarthra. It is especially with PervptychMs of that group.